Gender in Agriculture: Involving both men and women critical in changing misconceptions

Woman smiling ChinaWorld Bank Photo Collection
© Curt Carnemark, World Bank
 

Gender in Agriculture: Involving both men and women critical in changing misconceptions

We live in a world of stereotypes and misconceptions. So much potential for agricultural improvement in developing countries is not met because the roles of women, and the access and control that women have (or more importantly don’t have) is not understood. It is often assumed that women will benefit directly from a development initiative or that benefits will automatically trickle down to them. In reality however, these agricultural innovations and initiatives that bring productivity improvements are not adopted because women don’t, or aren’t able to, engage with the program.  Men may benefit in the short term,  but women and benefits to the family are minimal, and therefore the initiative is short lived as without funding there is no incentive to ‘include women’ and it is not accepted beyond the life of the initiative.

Interestingly there are other misconceptions and assumptions affecting gender. When you think of a gender expert most people think of a woman and are surprised when a man arrives. My career has included additional specialized gender training because I felt that for men to realize the need to change their behavior, they are more likely to listen to a man. This links to another misconception that gender is the same as feminism, women’s empowerment, men’s dis-empowerment.  Many men therefore are ‘turned off’ from considering gender because they perceive it to be a threat.

Sometimes we get so certain of gender stereotypes that we forget to thoroughly  understand the actual situation in the specific community. During the 1990′s I worked in Central Nigeria for a non-profit organisation. In the neighboring state there was a development project and we occasionally attended their meetings. In one, a gender ‘expert’ berated an extension worker who had reported that the women did not really farm, they just kept a garden close to the house. Instead of understand the specifics of the community, the ‘expert’ lectured the extension worker on how much of the farm work in Africa was done by women, and that clearly the extension worker had introduced male bias into his assessment. In many cases the ‘expert’ would have been right, but in this case the extension worker represented an area where the women were great traders and would buy from male farmers to sell produce throughout the country. The women in that community did not have time to travel to the farms but keep gardens close to their houses which can be managed by others if they are away. 

Maybe I was lucky, my boss at the time was a woman who was very successful at communicating with men. When it came to gender issues she would sit down and drink palm wine with the men and then ask questions to the group. This stimulated a discussion on how providing their women with greater opportunities would be of benefit to all in the family.

I learnt a lot, but maybe the important lesson was not to assume – not to assume that women will benefit, but also not to assume that there is a blue print with certain skill requirements to bring about gender change. 

I would be interested to hear the experiences of others.

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Our Gender in Agriculture Series is written by Heartland Global partner Dr. Andrew Ward.  Heartland Global’s vision is to deliver value-chain and technology innovations that provide lasting economic and livelihood growth, helping communities solve their own needs sustainably.

 For more information on Heartland Global, Inc. see www.heartland-global.com.

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Gender in Agriculture: Involving Women Improves Technology Uptake

In my last blog, I concluded mentioning the need to take the time to include the whole community, especially women in planning and implementation of a program. When I thought about this I was reminded of a time when I almost messed up because I thought using the popular participatory research paradigm at the time was critical, I had forgotten to consider factors affecting the community members.

http-::www.flickr.com:photos:ciat:5366738845:

photo credit: CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture

I was managing a research project which was supposed to be conducting participatory research through farmer field schools with common beans, which are predominantly planted by women farmers in the Southern Highland of Tanzania. It soon transpired that the research team were not successful in establishing farmer field schools, I demanded to know why ? The research team’s defense was rock solid. When they had first shared their plans for participatory research with the communities, there had been a silence and until one woman spoke up. “Do you realize how busy my day is from dawn until dusk?” she demanded, “I don’t have the time to attend your farmer field schools”.  The once quiet audience erupted in an torrent of support. 

With the problem identified and discussed, it turned out the women did in fact like the idea of the project letting them conduct their own assessment of varieties and practices. The women’s simple solution placing demonstration plots along the path that the women took to collect water every morning. As water collection was a communal and daily activity, the women would be able to observe the plots and discuss what they were observing among themselves, and if the researchers wanted to join them they could also be involved in the discussions. As a result the project was a success and led to the selection and release of the bean variety which was given the kiSwahili name of ‘Urafiki’ (friendship).

Working with more recent initiatives on gender, I have noticed that even small steps, such as dis-aggregating survey and baseline data by men and women, young and old,  can bring about major changes in the success of programs. With information on women in baseline surveys, and by measuring female views and participation, the impact of a change on women can be more easily measured.   Although it might take more effort, and there is no hiding away from the implication or potential changes to the program, women must be considered, and doing so reaps greater rewards.

Returning to Tanzania there is a Masaai saying that summarizes this approach nicely: “The fastest way up a mountain is to zigzag”!

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Our Gender in Agriculture Series is written by Heartland Global’s partner, Dr. Andrew Ward.  Heartland Global’s vision is to deliver value-chain and technology innovations that provide lasting economic and livelihood growth, helping communities solve their own needs sustainably.

For more information on Heartland Global, Inc see www.heartland-global.com.

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